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Refueling Protocol

Safety and Efficiency in Refueling Hydrogen-Powered Vehicles

Hydrogen stations with gaseous hydrogen play a crucial role in providing H2 fuel for hydrogen-powered vehicles. The refueling process at such stations follows a specific procedure to ensure safe and efficient refueling. This is an automated process referred to as the refueling algorithm in the AFID. Its purpose is to ensure the secure refueling of vehicles within the boundaries of the refueling protocol for high-pressure hydrogen storage systems in vehicles.

Hydrogen Refueling Stations

Standards for Safe Refueling

During refueling with gaseous hydrogen, in simplified terms, the hydrogen is first transferred from the H2 storage unit to the refueling hose at the station. This step can be achieved through a combination of compression and cooling to bring the hydrogen to the required pressure level. Subsequently, the pressure in the vehicle tank is regulated to enable safe refueling.

A refueling protocol for hydrogen stations is of great importance. It serves as a standard that sets forth the requirements for a safe refueling process. The protocol specifies, for example, how the connection between the vehicle tank and the station is established and which safety measures need to be checked, such as ambient temperature, pressure level, and volume level in the vehicle tank, among others.

The refueling protocol serves several functions. Firstly, it ensures that hydrogen is transferred correctly and safely, minimizing potential risks such as leaks or accidents. It also defines the communication standards between the vehicle and the station to enable effective and reliable refueling. Additionally, the refueling protocol may include information regarding billing and the operation of the station.

Overall, the refueling protocol of hydrogen stations ensures a standardized and safe refueling process. It is a crucial tool for promoting the acceptance and expansion of the hydrogen infrastructure, as well as ensuring reliable refueling for hydrogen-powered vehicles.


ISO Refueling Protocols

There are already established refueling protocols according to ISO 19880-1 for passenger cars and light-duty vehicles. Currently, an HD (Heavy-Duty) refueling protocol is being developed within ISO, drawing on the groundwork laid by the PHYRDE project. The refueling of HD applications with 350 bar and 700 bar using high flow rates (over 120g/sec. H2 and 360g/sec. H2) is being addressed in ISO/TC 197 WG 24. In this context, the ISO series ISO 19885-1, ISO 19885-2, and ISO 19885-3 are being developed.

The ISO series ISO 19885-1, ISO 19885-2, and ISO 19885-3

ISO 19885-3

Current status of development

ISO 19885-3


Status: January 24, 2023

SG3A has extended the schedule for completion to ensure alignment with SG 3B, 3C, 3D, and 3E. SG3A will work to complete as much as possible early in the timeline, but there looks to be considerable coordination and alignment with the other subgroups which is needed.


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